BBC Arabic’s Sally Nabil promotes more uncorroborated Six Day War hearsay

As noted here earlier in the week, in an item about the Six Day War aired on BBC World Service radio on June 3rd, BBC Arabic’s Sally Nabil mentioned that her department would be “marking this anniversary with a number of postcards [reports] from the different countries that were occupied during the 1967 war”.

“I’m here in Cairo. I’m filing a postcard with a veteran warrior.”

On June 6th that report appeared on the BBC Arabic website and apparently also on BBC Arabic TV.

The report’s synopsis repeats the claim made in Nabil’s World Service item according to which her interviewee was a prisoner of war ‘for about a year’. As noted here previously, according to the Israeli MFA, all prisoner exchanges with Egypt were completed by January 23rd 1968 and so that claim is obviously questionable.

In the report BBC Arabic’s audiences hear the following:

“I am Amin Abdul Rahman Mohammad Jumaa. I was born in the year of 1944. I am 72 years of age. I enlisted myself in the Egyptian army in 1964.

I was taken as a hostage by Israel for a year. I was released in the end of 1968.

The first day, I entered the camp and the thorns were between 6 to 10 cm.

I was walking barefoot on the thorns and the thorns went in my feet.

We were sitting in the camp, we were all Egyptians and all were starving. They give a quarter piece of toast and then he [the Israeli solider] start to beat you.

They start to investigate you and interrogate. After investigation they take the hostage and he never comes back.

An Israeli soldier then asked us ‘who is thirsty?’ One of the hostages said ‘I am’ so the Israeli solider will take him and kill him with fire [shoot him].

Then another solider comes and asks the same question. Three of us answered him, while one did not give an answer. The solider asked him ‘so you are not thirsty?’ The Egyptian solider replies ‘no’. Then the Israeli solider will take him and tell him ‘so you have dignity, then I am going to kill you’.

They used [a] bulldozer to bury the Egyptian soldiers alive. They do not have values.

I said to myself, I want to take my right but Camp David does not allow me to sue the Israeli state.” 

Obviously Sally Nabil can not have independently verified those claims and allegations before publishing this item. However, as indicated in its synopsis, her agenda in this report (as well as in her World Service item) also includes promotion of attempts by some parties to claim compensation on the basis of such unproven allegations. In the English language item broadcast on June 3rd she told listeners that her interviewee:

“…said ‘I tried to get a compensation from Israel’ but you know there is a peace treaty between Egypt and Israel that was signed in the late ’70s. He said that according to the Camp David peace treaty that each country should compensate its own citizens, so it was the Egyptian government that was supposed to compensate him for what happened to him but he said that the government paid him nothing. He said ‘my pension now it’s about 500 Egyptian pounds’ which is less than $50.”

The court ruling mentioned in the synopsis relates to a case that has been going on for years. While similar allegations have been made throughout more than two decades, that court case rests largely on an Israeli documentary called ‘Ruah Shaked’ from 2007 which caused a diplomatic incident at the time. The fact that the film-maker later admitted that he had made a series of mistakes that created the inaccurate impression that Israeli soldiers had killed Egyptian prisoners of war in 1967 does not interest those pursuing that case in the Egyptian courts.

Obviously it does not interest Sally Nabil either; as we see she is quite happy to promote unverified claims and to amplify allegations that have never been proven to BBC Arabic’s audience of 37 million people.

Related Articles:

BBC WS tells a context-free tale of Egypt’s Six Day War ‘naksa’ 

Meet CAMERA’s new media monitoring project

As regular readers know, BBC Watch has on occasion secured corrections to articles published on the BBC Arabic website – see, for example, here and here . However, regular monitoring of BBC content produced in the Arabic language (which according to the BBC reaches some 37 million people a week) is beyond our remit and capabilities.

Recognising the absence of monitoring of Arabic language content produced by Western media organisations including the BBC, CAMERA has initiated a new project, as recently reported by the JNS.

“The Boston-based Committee for Accuracy in Middle East Reporting in America (CAMERA) recently announced it has hired Syrian-born researcher Ahed al-Hendi to spearhead the organization’s new Arabic-language media department.

According to CAMERA, the new department will monitor Arabic versions of major Western media outlets including the BBC, Sky News, CNN, Agence France-Presse, France24, The Associated Press, Reuters, the Huffington Post and Al Jazeera.

“No organization currently monitors Arabic-language media for accuracy and adherence to professional codes of journalistic practice,” CAMERA Executive Director Andrea Levin said. “Other excellent organizations monitoring Arabic-language media, such as MEMRI (the Middle East Media Research Institute), are doing vital but different work, providing translations of Arabic-language media reports. CAMERA’s Arabic project has an entirely different objective and will complement but not overlap with MEMRI and other related groups.”

CAMERA hopes to build off its decades of work holding English, Hebrew and Spanish media accountable for bias and misreporting when it comes to Israel. 

“My staff and I will begin by addressing influential outlets such as the BBC and CNN, reviewing their Arabic coverage of the Arab-Israeli conflict and communicating with editors to promote accurate, complete news,” Hendi told”

We will of course keep readers updated about the launch of this new project.


The BBC’s Haneen Zoabi show

In mid-October the BBC World News channel aired a documentary by Jane Corbin titled “Israel’s Arab Warriors” and on November 8th, 9th and 10th the same programme was shown on BBC Arabic TV. A written article by Corbin on the same topic (which includes the video) was promoted on the BBC News website’s Middle East page on November 8th under the title “Israel’s Arab soldiers who fight for the Jewish state“. The same article was translated into Arabic and promoted on the same day on the BBC Arabic website.israels-arab-warriors-orig

It is of course good to see the BBC finally getting round to reporting on a topic which has long been off its radar and Jane Corbin is to be commended for enabling BBC audiences to see beyond the standard BBC narrative in her unusually nuanced presentation of Israeli society.

A distinctly less laudable aspect of Corbin’s filmed and written reports is their generous amplification of unqualified and unchallenged propaganda from the inadequately presented Haneen Zoabi.

Less than a minute into the film’s pre-title introduction viewers see Zoabi – unidentified – saying:

“This small, marginalized group that serves in the Israeli army against its people knows they are crossing a patriotic red line.”

At 08:33 Jane Corbin tells viewers that:

“Haneen Zoabi is an MP in the Knesset – the Israeli parliament – but she identifies herself as Palestinian and often clashes with the government.

A similar portrait of Zoabi is presented in the written article:

“Hanin Zoabi is an Israeli Arab MP who identifies herself as Palestinian and is a fierce critic of the state.”zoabi-israels-arab-soldiers-2-with-desc

When Zoabi is presented on screen, the description given is “Hanin Zoabi MK Joint Arab List”. While that description is of course accurate, it tells BBC audiences nothing about the ideology of the Balad party to which Zoabi belongs and the very relevant fact that she and her fellow party members reject the existence of the Jewish State, promote the ‘right of return’ for Palestinian refugees and aspire to a bi-national state. The absence of that information – along with relevant details such as Zoabi’s participation in the 2010 Hamas-supporting violent flotilla and her glorification of terrorism – of course prevents BBC audiences from being able to put her “particular viewpoint” into its appropriate context.

Following that inadequate introduction from Corbin, viewers hear Zoabi say:

“Should we serve in an army that besieges our people in Gaza, occupies our people in the West Bank? A State which expelled my people and built its State on the ruins. 678 cities and villages were demolished by the State of Israel. There’s a conflict with a state that defines itself as a Jewish State; a state that grants privileges to its Jewish over its Palestinian citizens. We just can’t accept the situation.”

The BBC’s commitment to accurate and impartial broadcasting should of course have meant that if it was deemed necessary to include those allegations from Zoabi in the film, then Corbin should have clarified – inter alia – that Gaza is not ‘besieged’, that the vast majority of Palestinians in Judea & Samaria live under the rule of the Palestinian Authority and that most of Palestinians who left what is today Israel in 1948 were not “expelled”. Corbin, however, failed to add any clarifying comments.corbin-art-in-arabic

At 15:28 Corbin tells viewers that:

“The Israeli government says Israeli Arabs have equal rights but they often complain that they are second class citizens. Haneen Zoabi – an MP here – accuses Israel of using bribery to get Arabs to join up.”

Zoabi: “Israel is after people who are poor with no work to serve in the army. 52 – 54% of our Palestinian people in Israel are under the poverty line. Only 10% of the Palestinian youth in Israel continue their university study. You are talking about a whole new generation. The government’s policy of creating poverty obliges people to look for the only solution they can.”

Not only does Corbin fail to challenge the falsehood that the Israeli government has a “policy of creating poverty” but she refrains from supplying any context to Zoabi’s propaganda (for example the fact that just 22% of Arab women of working age are employed or the fact that poverty among the ultra-Orthodox population stands at a similar 54.3%) or informing viewers of government investment in efforts to raise the proportion of Arab citizens in higher education.

Three minutes further on, Zoabi is again given an unchallenged platform.

19:19 Corbin: “Haneen Zoabi’s at a protest outside an Israeli hospital where a Palestinian from the West Bank is on hunger strike. He’s being held under Israeli administrative detention without being indicted or tried.”

Zoabi: “There are hundreds of Palestinians in administrative detention. It’s political persecution; part of the Israeli policy to criminalise the lawful Palestinian resistance. We are fighting for equality and our rights against Israeli racism and colonialisation against the people who have rights to this land.”

Once again, there is no comment from Corbin – not even an effort to distance the BBC from the claim that violent terrorism against civilians is ‘lawful resistance’ or an explanation of the fact that the particular hunger striker in administrative detention is associated with the terrorist organisation Hamas – as the BBC is aware.

At 20:26 viewers see Zoabi repeat the statement made in the programme’s introduction:

“This small, marginalized group that serves in the Israeli army against its people knows they are crossing a patriotic red line.”

At 20:37 Zoabi tells viewers that:

“[Father] Naddaf is a person rejected by Palestinian society – even by some Christians. Not only does he not represent anyone, he is being used by Israel. He is a tool in the hands of the Israeli authorities.”corbin-art-eng

The ability of audiences to put those statements into their correct context would of course have been enhanced had Corbin bothered to tell them of Zoabi’s attempts (together with other Balad MKs) to intimidate Father Naddaf. 

At 24:11 Zoabi returns:

“90% of the Arabs who serve in the Israeli army don’t have equality with Israelis. Israel does not need us to protect its security. Israel doesn’t want to treat us according to our national identity but divide us into Bedouins, country people, city people, Muslims, Christians, Druze. Any way to divide us.

At 40:07 Corbin yet again provides a platform for more unchallenged propaganda from Zoabi – this time at a Land Day rally in Sakhnin.

“Knesset member Haneen Zoabi is here to address the rally.”

Zoabi: “Our message is this army is the army of a country which is against us and kills our people in Jerusalem and in Gaza and in the West Bank. We are not going to play a part in killing our people.”

Following an interview with Mohammed Zoabi, audiences once again hear from Haneen Zoabi:

42:33 “Of course I do not represent those who serve in the Israeli army. I do not speak in the name of the person you just mentioned [Mohammed Zoabi]. Just because he’s part of my family doesn’t make me responsible for his actions. Of course I do not represent those who have identity disfiguration. I do not represent those who have no self-esteem, those with a slave mentality. I represent people with dignity who feel they are in their homeland and never left it.”

Haneen Zoabi appears no fewer than nine times in this 47 minute-long film and on none of those occasions does Corbin challenge her falsehoods and propaganda or correct the inaccurate impressions received by viewers. Although at one point in the film (40:39) Corbin does tell viewers that “a recent poll says a majority of the Arab-Israeli community identifies as Israeli in some way”, none of the sixteen other Muslim, Christian or Druze members of the Knesset are interviewed, meaning that BBC audiences are restricted to hearing Zoabi’s extremist views without understanding her place on the political map.

The vast majority of this programme’s viewers around the world will of course not be aware of the ideology of Zoabi and her political party and will not be familiar with the phenomenon of publicly funded MPs who advocate the destruction of the state they ostensibly serve. The failure to adequately explain the political motivations behind Zoabi’s propaganda means that not only does this film become a platform for its unchallenged amplification, but that viewers are misled with false and distorted information which overshadows and detracts from a long-overdue presentation of the seriously under-reported topic of co-existence between different ethnic communities in Israel.  

Related Articles:

The Christians who do not fit into the BBC’s Middle East narrative

Protest by Middle East Christians not on the BBC radar

What Do Israeli Christians, Druze and Bedouin Think About the Jewish State?   (CAMERA)

BBC WS ‘Newshour’ promotion of Haneen Zoabi omits crucial information


Sniper attack on Gaza Strip border fails to make BBC news in English but reported in Arabic

At around 11 a.m. on December 24th a sniper in the Gaza Strip opened fire at IDF troops on the Israeli side of the border fence near Kissufim and a soldier from the Bedouin Desert Reconnaissance Battalion sustained severe chest injuries.

IDF forces responded to the attack.

“Palestinians said that the commander of Hamas’s surveillance unit in the area was killed in the IDF response, Israel Radio reported. Hamas fighters were abandoning positions across the Strip, the report said.

Medical sources said Tayseer al-Ismary, 33, died after being hit by a bullet fired by the IDF, while Hamas sources confirmed he was a member of the movement’s military wing, the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades.”

Despite BBC staff being aware of this latest breach of the August ceasefire agreement by Palestinian terrorists, it was not reported on the BBC News website either on December 24th or 25th.

Kissufim attack Shuval tweet

The story did, however, appear on BBC Arabic television and on the BBC Arabic website where Rushdi Abualouf’s filmed report was presented under the obviously problematic ‘last-first’ title “Palestinian shot dead by Israeli army near Khan Younis”.

Kissufim attack BBC Arabic report


BBC Arabic interview with former Arafat bodyguard

Courtesy of the indispensable MEMRI, non-Arabic speaking readers can now view a portion of an interview with Muhammad Al-Daya – formerly the bodyguard of Yasser Arafat – which appeared on BBC Arabic on April 3rd.

A transcript is also available here.

Seeing as it isn’t that long ago since former Jerusalem Bureau correspondent Jon Donnison was doing terrorist chic with the promotion of “Arafat’s legacy” to the BBC’s English-speaking audiences, it would of course be appropriate for the corporation to make this interview available to audiences outside the limited sphere of BBC Arabic.


BBC Radio 4 reinforces political narrative through drama

H/t: JK, J

The ability of BBC audiences to form “a global understanding of international issues” is of course shaped to a large extent by the standard of the corporation’s news and current affairs programmes – but not exclusively. 

An example of the reinforcement of stereotypical impressions and politically motivated narrative through context-free broadcasting was to be found in a radio play titled “The Brick” which was aired on BBC Radio 4’s “Afternoon Drama” programme on January 13th and is available for listening for a limited period of time here

R4 Afternoon Drama

The radio play’s synopsis reads as follows:

“Rasha Khory is a Palestinian woman on her way to Jerusalem to run some errands for her mother, but she also has her own secret mission, visceral to her sense of identity. All too swiftly Rasha finds herself thwarted, injured and discovering some unwelcome home truths about her beloved father. What choices will she make? A compelling portrait of Palestinian life by Selma Dabbagh.

Directed by Sarah Bradshaw”

Those familiar with the British anti-Israel activism scene will no doubt recognize the name of the Scottish-born author Selma Dabbagh due to, among other things, her participation in the BDS-supporting ‘Palestine Festival of Literature (or PalFest) and other campaigning events.

The producer and director of this radio play, Sarah Bradshaw, is also the Commissioner for International News Training at the BBC College of Journalism and more information on the circumstances behind the collaboration between the BBC and Dabbagh on this project is to be found on the same webpage.

“Have you ever had one of those days that make you want to scream out of sheer frustration?  Have you ever asked someone ‘if-you-wouldn’t-mind–possibly-just-helping-me-do-this-teeny-little-thing’ only to make matters worse?  If any of that sounds familiar, then Selma Dabbagh’s first radio play The Brick could strike a chord.

This piece is part of The Innovation Strand, an initiative that invites BBC staff from other broadcast disciplines into radio drama to broaden their experience and perhaps offer something slightly different to the Afternoon Drama slot.  Previous Innovation Strand plays have included docudrama, conceptual art and high comedy.

Having worked in the Middle East and enjoyed Selma’s first novel, we met up and got down to planning and preparing a few different plot lines.  With guidance and advice from the managerial team, we submitted an idea that passed.  When I mentioned to a colleague at the Arabic Service what I was doing, we started planning for a film crew to interview contributors and film the recording for their flagship Arts TV programme, ‘Afaq’ or Horizon.

The story is set in occupied Palestine where Rasha Khory (played by the brilliant Sirine Saba) is a young woman with 3 seemingly simple tasks to complete for her mother (Nina Wadia).  She must light a candle in church, deliver a bag of lemons and buy a plastic sheet.  However, Rasha has another, more visceral, secret mission: to retrieve one of her beloved father’s handmade bricks from the back garden of her former family home, inside the city wall of Jerusalem  with the help of an unsuspecting tourist (Anton Lesser).  Now this all might seems pretty simple, but if you’re Palestinian what should be a short taxi ride can sometimes take many hours.  Rasha finds herself negotiating permits, road blocks, children and checkpoints – and along the way she learns some shocking home truths about the late father she idolises.” [emphasis added]

The BBC Arabic programme mentioned above can be viewed here.

Most of the play takes place in Jerusalem (“occupied Palestine” according to the writer of the synopsis) and listeners familiar with the region will notice slips in authenticity which are presumably the result of the fact that its “British Palestinian writer” has limited knowledge of her subject matter. A reference to a “blue” fifty shekel note (they are purple) or the description of an Israeli soldier as “a seventeen year-old with bad skin” (conscription begins from the age of eighteen) are small examples. Much more problematic is the lack of any context or background to the subject of checkpoints which is a major theme of the play. Map checkpoints

No explanation is offered as to why those checkpoints are necessary. No mention is of course made of Palestinian terror. No information is provided with regard to the fact that the checkpoint named – Zeitoun- is open 24 hours a day and on average 1,200 people use it every day, with 4,545,854 crossings having been made in the first half of 2013 alone at that and other checkpoints.

Neither is any background given regarding the fact that the current situation on the ground whereby Palestinians who live in the PA-controlled Areas A & B require a permit to enter areas under Israeli rule, is a product of the Oslo Accords to which the Palestinian leadership willingly agreed. 

But of course Selma Dabbagh and Sarah Bradshaw had no intention of providing any such context to listeners because it would only have detracted from the impression of Palestinians as passive victims which they are trying to create in their audiences’ minds.

Accompanying the play on the same webpage is a link to an English-language version of the BBC Arabic programme on the making of the play. 

R4 Afternoon Drama 3

There, Selma Dabbagh tells viewers:

“And I was trying to make a parallel here between the way that the mother is being treated and the way that her character is being eroded and what’s happening to the situation for Palestinians in East Jerusalem.”


“It’s always a very delicate balancing act setting any kind of drama or fiction in a very political context because you don’t want to make it… you don’t want to sort of whitewash it out and pretend it’s not happening when it’s something people are talking about all the time. But at the same time you don’t want to create a piece of work which is polemical or giving a very – you know – speaking out through the drama on a political line, because we’re actually trying to show the humanity of the characters.”

From Selma Dabbagh one does not expect anything other than this kind of agitprop; she has, after all, built a career around producing literature with explicitly political messaging. What is notable is that a BBC employee responsible for the training of journalists found it appropriate to commission, produce and direct such an obviously political piece of drama – with public funding, of course.

At one point during the play the heroine tells an English tourist:

“You must look at other things – not just at what you think you will find: it is normally lying.”

Unfortunately, the BBC Radio 4 audiences listening to this radio play are not given the any such warning and the majority of them will not have the background knowledge to realize just how one-sided a narrative is being presented in this broadcast. 


BBC Arabic’s Edgard Jallad promotes Iranian propaganda on BBC World News

According to official BBC figures from June of this year, the corporation’s global news services reach 256 million people each week. How many of those people tuned in to BBC World News on November 19th 2013 is not known, but those who did will have seen BBC Arabic TV editor Edgard Jallad in an interview on the subject of the bombings at the Iranian embassy in Beirut on that day which was also promoted on the BBC News website under the unambiguous heading “What’s behind the bombings?”.

hp link to Jallad interview

Edgard Jallad interview

According to Jallad, whose main claim to expertise according to the synopsis on the BBC website appears to be that he was “born in Beirut”:

“Such bombings are not staged for just a simple message. There will be more than one message. The first one could be related to the role of Iran in Syria and this is a major role that is, you know, affecting the whole situation and regional balances.

The second layer in this message could be that Iran is getting closer to an agreement about its nuclear programme with the United States and we’ve heard condemnation by Secretary Kerry now, moments ago, so he strictly condemned what happened and he described it as a terrorist attack. So, this will push some countries to be uncomfortable and unhappy about what’s happening and these countries are very well known. Israel is not happy and the Iranians they accused Israel openly about this.”

Interviewer: “And Israel has denied it, obviously.”

Jallad: “Yeah, and the other part – and we’ve heard it a lot through experts today – they are accusing Saudi Arabia for example because Saudi Arabia is not happy about this deal between Iran and the United States.”

The notion that the bombing in Beirut is linked to the P5+1 talks in Geneva – rather than being connected to the role of Iran and its proxy Hizballah in the Syrian civil war, as clearly stated by the group which took responsibility for the attack – is taken straight out of the Iranian regime’s PR campaign handbook.

“Iran linked the bombing to talks on a nuclear deal in Geneva, accusing Israel of trying to sabotage them and of stoking Mideast tensions, following bomb attacks on its embassy in Beirut.

“I think there is every possibility for success,” Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif, who is Iran’s top nuclear negotiator, said after meeting his Italian counterpart Emma Bonino in Rome.

“I go to Geneva with the determination to come out with an agreement at the end of this round,” Zarif said.

But he said that Israel was trying to undermine the talks, after an Iranian foreign ministry spokeswoman accused Tel Aviv of being behind the attacks on Iran’s embassy — a charge immediately denied by Israel.”

When announcing those above-mentioned record viewing figures, the BBC’s Director of Global News Peter Horrocks said:

“This is a milestone for the BBC, with more than a quarter of a billion people tuning in to radio, TV and digital services every week. Today’s figures shows there is a growing worldwide audience for impartial, trustworthy journalism.”

In fact, of course, an impartial, trustworthy – and responsible – broadcaster would have taken the trouble to provide its audiences with professionally sourced information on the background to, and motives for, the baseless propaganda put out by the theocratic dictatorship which is a major sponsor and supporter of several proscribed terrorist organisations in the region and of the democidal Syrian dictatorship.

The BBC, however, chose once again to amplify, promote and spread that unquestioned and unchallenged propaganda to millions of viewers worldwide.

Related articles:

BBC amplifies Iranian propaganda over Beirut embassy bombing

BBC Arabic sweetens up terrorists

A filmed report from BBC Arabic’s Sam Farah which appeared on the Middle East page of the BBC News website on April 16th 2013 waxes lyrical about the confectionery skills of two of the terrorists released to the Gaza Strip under the terms of the Shalit deal in 2011.

Terrorists Knafe Gaza

Of course Farah does not describe the men as terrorists – instead using the generalised terms “inmates” and “prisoners” – and he completely neglects to inform viewers of the distinctly less than sweet reasons behind the incarceration of the two.  

Nader Abu Turki from Hebron was a senior Hamas operative who was arrested in November 2002 and convicted of conspiracy to murder, stone-throwing, planting bombs and membership of the military wing of Hamas. According to one youth (17 years old at the time) conscripted to Hamas by Abu Turki, he was selected to carry out a suicide bombing attack in Israel because of his European appearance and blue eyes. Abu Turki was sentenced to 15 years imprisonment.

Hamuda Salah from Nablus (Schem) was sentenced to 22 years in prison after having been convicted of conspiracy to murder, planting bombs, shooting attacks and membership of a terrorist organisation.

Farah also fails to inform viewers why the two men ended up in Gaza, rather than returning to Hebron and Nablus after their release. In fact, both were considered too dangerous to be freed to PA controlled territory. 

The BBC’s sanitised depiction of the subjects of this report as former “prisoners” and “inmates” without any reference to the reasons for which they were imprisoned and their involvement in terrorism is not only a failure by omission to comply with BBC editorial guidelines on accuracy, but also compromises the BBC’s impartiality by whitewashing terrorism. 

About that ‘peace in the Middle East’ thing…

h/t Michael Totten’s World Affairs blog.

The next time someone tells you that peace in the Middle East could be attained if Israel would just stop building apartments in the ‘wrong’ places, try pointing them in the direction of this film. 

Co-produced by Darius Bazargan and Wadih al Hayek, it was shown on BBC Arabic television last month and has also been featured in an article on the BBC News website’s Middle East page.

It definitely deserves an even broader audience, especially in the West. In the broader sense, this film also puts the case for the wider use by the BBC of commissioned work by local film-makers and Middle East experts.